The Q Adaptor Function (QAF) block is used to connect to the TMN those entities which do not support standard TMN reference points. An example is shown in Figure 9; in this figure a non-TMN OSF and a non-TMN NEF are connected to the TMN. The responsibility of both QAFs is to translate between q reference points (which are TMN reference points) and m reference points. Since the m reference point is a non-TMN (e.g. proprietary) reference point, Figure 5 showed the QAF at the edge of the TMN.