A typical telecommunication network consists of exchanges and transmission systems. In TMN terminology, exchanges and transmission systems are examples of network elements (NEs).
The functions that are performed by NEs are `Network Element Functions' (NEFs). According to TMN, these functions include:
As opposed to the second kind, the first kind of functions are not further defined by TMN. This explains why Figure 5 locates the NEF at the edge of the TMN.